What Is Basic Electrical Theory

By | December 21, 2021



What is Basic Electrical Theory?


Electricity is an essential part of our day-to-day lives, powering everything from devices to appliances in the home, office and industrial facilities. But all too often, basic electrical theory, which explains the principles and components of electric circuits, is overlooked. Understanding these fundamental basics of electrical systems is crucial in a wide range of disciplines, from electricians to engineers to computer technicians.


The basics of electrical theory can be broken down into three categories: current, resistance and voltage. These three properties are the basis for all other electrical aspects, and understanding them will help you understand electric circuits. To further your knowledge, it’s important to consider safety and wiring diagrams, as well as the various components used to build electric circuits.



Current and Its Effect on Voltage


Current is the flow of electrons through a conductor and is measured in amperes. It is affected by the amount of voltage applied to it and is directly proportional to voltage; that is, if voltage increases, current increases. As voltage and current increase, resistance decreases, allowing more current to flow.


Current is also affected by the type of material used in the conductor. Some materials resistance to the flow of electricity, like copper, while others are more conductive. In addition, the length of the conductor will also affect the amount of current that can be directed through it.



Voltage and Its Effect on Resistance


Voltage is the force driving the current through a circuit. It is measured in units of volts and is generated by a power source and determined by the amount of current flowing through the circuit. Unlike current, voltage does not increase or decrease with the amount of resistance in the circuit.


When dealing with high voltage, it is important to understand the relationship between voltage and resistance, as it affects the amount of current that can be driven through a circuit. Generally speaking, the more voltage applied to a circuit, the less resistance it has, allowing more current to flow.



Resistance and Its Effect on Current


Resistance is the opposition to the passage of current in an electrical circuit. It is typically measured in ohms and is dependent on the material used in the conductor and its length. When dealing with low voltage, resistance is usually higher, which means less current can be driven through the circuit.


If the resistance is too high, it can cause an overloaded circuit, increasing the risk of fire or other damage. On the flip side, too much resistance can also cause circuits to become underpowered, preventing adequate current from flowing. It is important to find the right balance between resistance and current for optimal performance.



The Components of Electric Circuits


Electric circuits are composed of various components such as resistors, capacitors, diodes, transistors, and switches. Each of these components has its own unique characteristics and performs specific tasks within a circuit. Resistors are used to reduce voltage and current, while capacitors are used to store electrical energy. Diodes, transistors and switches can be used to control the flow of electricity in a circuit.


More complex electric circuits may include other components, such as integrated circuits and transformers. Integrated circuits are composed of many transistors and other components on a single chip, and are used in computers and other modern electronics. Transformers are used to step up or step down the voltage of a circuit.


Understanding the basics of electrical theory is essential in order to comprehend how electric circuits work. The concepts of current, voltage, and resistance are the building blocks of electric circuits, and must be taken into account when troubleshooting, designing or building any type of system.


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Mike Holt Electrical Theory Basic Textbook


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